Back in Time: Build an App without Storyboard in UIKit

1. Prepare the app

func scene(_ scene: UIScene, willConnectTo session: UISceneSession, options connectionOptions: UIScene.ConnectionOptions) {
guard let winScene = (scene as? UIWindowScene) else { return }
window = UIWindow(windowScene: winScene)
window?.rootViewController = ViewController()

2. The UI elements

private let taxCalculateContentView: UIView = {
let view = UIView()
view.backgroundColor = .blue
view.layer.cornerRadius = 20
view.clipsToBounds = true
view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
return view
private let titleLabel: UILabel = {
let label = UILabel()
label.text = "Value Added Tax"
label.textAlignment = .center
label.textColor = .systemBlue
label.font = UIFont.boldSystemFont(ofSize: 20)
label.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
return label

private let amountTextField: UITextField = {
let textField = UITextField()
textField.backgroundColor = .white
textField.placeholder = "Amount / Net Price"
textField.borderStyle = .roundedRect
textField.keyboardType = .decimalPad
textField.textAlignment = .center
textField.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
return textField

private let percentageTextField: UITextField = {
let textField = UITextField()
textField.backgroundColor = .white
textField.placeholder = "Tax in Percent"
textField.borderStyle = .roundedRect
textField.keyboardType = .numberPad
textField.textAlignment = .center
textField.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
return textField

private let resultLabel: UILabel = {
let label = UILabel()
label.text = "Gross Price"
label.textAlignment = .center
label.textColor = .systemPink
label.font = UIFont.systemFont(ofSize: 20)
label.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
return label
let calculateButton: UIButton = {
let button = UIButton(type: .system)
button.backgroundColor = .systemBlue
button.setTitle("Calculate", for: .normal)
button.tintColor = .white
button.layer.cornerRadius = 10
button.clipsToBounds = true
button.addTarget(self, action: #selector(calculateActionButton), for: .touchUpInside)
button.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
return button

3. SubViews and Auto Layout

override func viewDidLoad() {


view.backgroundColor = .systemBlue

func setupAutoLayout() {
taxCalculateContentView.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.leftAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
taxCalculateContentView.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.rightAnchor, constant: -20).isActive = true
taxCalculateContentView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: view.frame.height / 3).isActive = true
taxCalculateContentView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor).isActive = true

titleLabel.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.topAnchor, constant: 10).isActive = true
titleLabel.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.leftAnchor, constant: 40).isActive = true
titleLabel.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.rightAnchor, constant: -40).isActive = true
titleLabel.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 40).isActive = true

amountTextField.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: titleLabel.bottomAnchor, constant: 10).isActive = true
amountTextField.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.leftAnchor, constant: 40).isActive = true
amountTextField.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.rightAnchor, constant: -40).isActive = true
amountTextField.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 40).isActive = true

percentageTextField.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: amountTextField.bottomAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
percentageTextField.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.leftAnchor, constant: 60).isActive = true
percentageTextField.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.rightAnchor, constant: -60).isActive = true
percentageTextField.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 40).isActive = true

resultLabel.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: percentageTextField.bottomAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
resultLabel.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.leftAnchor, constant: 60).isActive = true
resultLabel.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.rightAnchor, constant: -60).isActive = true
resultLabel.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 40).isActive = true

calculateButton.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: resultLabel.bottomAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
calculateButton.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.leftAnchor, constant: 40).isActive = true
calculateButton.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: taxCalculateContentView.rightAnchor, constant: -40).isActive = true
calculateButton.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 40).isActive = true

4. UIButton Action and Summary

@objc func calculateActionButton(sender: UIButton!) {
let amount = amountTextField.text?.replacingOccurrences(of: ",", with: ".")
let percentage = percentageTextField.text

if !amount!.isEmpty && !percentage!.isEmpty {
let result = Double(amount!)! * (1 + (Double(percentage!)! / 100))
resultLabel.text = "Gross Price: \(String(format: "%.2f", result))"




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